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Computer and peripheral manufacturing is made up of companies that make computers and related products, known as peripherals. Most computers are built by a small number of well-known brands, but there are also many small companies that sell their products locally or on the Internet. Computers are made up of components, such as motherboards, central processing units, graphics cards, hard disk drives, and power supplies. Many of these products are purchased from other companies and assembled as part of the computer.

As a result, many finished computers are simply the combination of a number of other products. Other firms in this industry segment produce computer peripherals, which are devices that can be used with computers, such as keyboards, mice, printers, and scanners.

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Other peripherals, generally known as internal peripherals, are physically installed in the computer's case. These include hard disk drives, networking cards, modems, sound cards, and disk drives. Many internal peripherals are prepackaged as part of a computer, although almost all of them can be installed by a technician or experienced computer owner. The communications equipment manufacturing segment of the industry produces a number of devices that simplify communication between individuals or groups.

This segment includes telephones and cellular telephones, as well as equipment used by television and radio stations to transmit information. It should be noted that this does not include computer-related peripherals—such as networking cards or modems—which allow computers to connect to other computers. Audio and video equipment manufacturing is a relatively small industry in the United States and includes companies who produce consumer electronics.

While these devices are widespread in the United States, most of them are produced overseas, making employment in this industry relatively small. Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturers produce integrated circuits, or computer microchips, which power a wide range of electronic products.

Advanced materials definition

They also produce other electronic components, such as resistors and capacitors, as well as printed circuit boards. Unlike most of the companies in this industry, these manufacturers start from basic materials such as silicon and copper and produce intermediate products that are only rarely sold directly to consumers. The exceptions to this rule include companies that produce central processing units and memory chips, although even these products are more likely to be pre-installed in a new computer.

The navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing segment is a diverse group of companies that produce products mainly for industrial, military, and healthcare use.

Manufacturing Technology in the Electronics Industry

It also includes some consumer products, such as global positioning system GPS devices, as well as clocks and watches. This segment is one of the largest in the industry, mainly because its primary customers are the U. Department of Defense and the healthcare industry. Many of the companies in this segment work as government contractors, producing equipment for military purposes.

In some cases, this technology has been adapted for consumer use. For example, GPS technology was originally designed for use by the U. Navy, but has been developed into a navigation system that individuals can use in their cars. There is also a growing healthcare component of this industry segment. Extensive government funding for research in medical technology has led to a number of important innovations that are being used worldwide in medical care.

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media is another segment of this industry.

Introduction to the electronics industry | SpringerLink

They produce some of this blank media for sale to consumers, but most of it they use to duplicate audio recordings, videos and movies, software, and other media for distribution to consumers and business users on a mass scale. Establishments in this segment are usually either subsidiaries of companies that create the software, movies, or recordings or are independent firms licensed by such companies as distributors. Recent developments. The rapid pace of innovation in electronics technology creates a constant demand for newer and faster products and applications.


Being the first firm to market a new or better product can mean success for both the product and the firm. For example, a company that develops a new kind of computer chip to be used in many brands of computers can earn millions of dollars in sales until a competitor is able to improve on that design.

Many employees, therefore, are research scientists, engineers, and technicians whose job it is to continually develop and improve products. The product design process includes not only the initial design, but also development work, which ensures that the product functions properly and can be manufactured as inexpensively as possible. When a product is manufactured, the components are assembled, usually by soldering them to a printed circuit board by means of automated equipment.

Hand assembly of small parts requires both good eyesight and coordination, but because of the cost and precision involved, assembly and packaging are becoming highly automated. Globalization has become a major factor in the electronics manufacturing industry, often making it difficult to distinguish between American and foreign companies. Many U. Many products are being designed in one country, manufactured in another, and assembled in a third.

The United Sates electronics industry tends to focus on high-end products, such as computers and microchips. Even so, many components of final products manufactured in the United States are produced elsewhere and shipped to a U. The competitive nature of the industry makes for an exciting, but sometimes stressful, work environment—especially for those in technical and managerial occupations. Work environment. In general, those working in computer and electronics manufacturing—even production workers—enjoy relatively good working conditions.

In contrast to those in many other manufacturing industries, production workers in this industry usually work in clean and relatively noise-free environments. Workers in semiconductor product manufacturing must wear special outer garments known as "bunny suits" to avoid bringing dust or other contamination into the manufacturing area, which is known as a "cleanroom.

This helps engineers to customize their designs to fit the manufacturing process, making it easier to bring new products to market. In , the rate of work-related injuries and illnesses was lower than the average for the private sector.

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However, some jobs in the industry may present risks. For example, some workers who fabricate integrated circuits and other components may be exposed to hazardous chemicals, and working with small parts may cause eyestrain. The computer and electronic product manufacturing industry employed 1. The industry is comprised of about 19, establishments in , many of which were small, employing only one worker or a few workers.

Large establishments of or more workers employed the majority—78 percent—of the industry's workforce. Companies in this industry also may employ many additional workers in establishments that are part of other industries. These separate research facilities are usually included in a different industry—research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences. The computer and electronic product manufacturing industry has a diverse workforce mainly composed of professionals, who conduct research and development work, and production workers, who are directly involved in the assembly and testing of the industry's products.

Professional and related occupations. About 34 percent of the jobs in this industry are in professional occupations table 2. About 15 percent of those workers are engineers—predominantly electrical and electronics engineers and computer hardware engineers, but also many industrial engineers and mechanical engineers.

diesancopus.gq These workers develop new products and devise better, more efficient production methods. Engineers may coordinate and lead teams developing new products. Others may work with customers to help them make the best use of the products. Computer network, systems, and database administrators, and computer scientists are employed throughout the industry, becoming more dispersed with the increasing computerization of development and production methods.

Manufacturing of Electronics (Prof. John Hart, MIT)

Many new hardware devices are now controlled by software, which has increased the share of computer specialists in this field. Other professionals include mathematical scientists, physical scientists , and technical writers. About 6 percent of workers are engineering technicians , many of whom work closely with engineers.

Engineering technicians help develop new products, work in production areas, and sometimes assist customers in installing, maintaining, and repairing equipment. They also may test new products or processes to make sure that everything works correctly. Production occupations. About 31 percent of employees are production workers. About half of those are assemblers and fabricators , who place and solder components on circuit boards, or assemble and connect the various parts of electronic devices. Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers are responsible for putting together products such as computers and appliances, telecommunications equipment, and even missile control systems.

Some assemblers are highly skilled and use their significant experience and training to assemble major components. A skilled assembler may put together an entire subassembly or even an entire product, especially when products are made in relatively small numbers. Less skilled assemblers often work on a production line, attaching one or a few parts and continually repeating the same operation.

Increasingly, as production work becomes more automated, assemblers and other production workers monitor the machinery that does the assembly work rather than physically assembling products themselves. Semiconductor processors initiate and control the many automated steps in the process of manufacturing integrated circuits or computer chips.