Guide An Institution of General History (1680) William Howell - Volume Two

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When the war ended, the enslaved African Americans were freed. Texas was subject to Reconstruction , a process that left a residue of bitterness among whites. They regained political dominance and passed laws in the late 19th century creating second-class status for blacks in a Jim Crow system of segregation and disenfranchising them in through passage of a poll tax. Blacks were excluded from the formal political system until after passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mids.

National Park Service: Kiva, Cross, and Crown (Bibliography)

Cotton, ranching, and farming dominated the economy, with railroad construction after a major factor in the development of new cities away from rivers and waterways. Toward the end of the 19th century, timber became an important industry in Texas as well. In a petroleum discovery at Spindletop Hill , near Beaumont, was developed as the most productive oil well the world had ever seen.

The wave of oil speculation and discovery that followed came to be known as the " Oil Boom ", permanently transforming and enriching the economy of Texas. Agriculture and ranching gave way to a service-oriented society after the boom years of World War II. Segregation ended in the s due to federal legislation. Politically, Texas changed from the virtually one-party Democratic state achieved following disenfranchisement, to a highly contested political scene, until when it was solidly Republican.

The Preface to the Reader

The economy of Texas has continued to grow rapidly, becoming the second-largest state in population in , and became economically highly diversified, with a growing base in new technology. Texas lies at the juncture of two major cultural spheres of Pre-Columbian North America , the Southwestern and the Plains areas. The area now covered by Texas was occupied by three major indigenous cultures, which had reached their developmental peak before the arrival of European explorers and are known from archaeology.

These are: [3]. The Paleo-Indians who lived in Texas between — BC may have links to Clovis and Folsom cultures; these nomadic people hunted mammoths and bison latifrons [4] using atlatls. They extracted Alibates flint from quarries in the panhandle region. Beginning during the 4th millennium BC , the population of Texas increased despite a changing climate and the extinction of giant mammals.

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Many pictograms from this era, drawn on the walls of caves or on rocks, are visible in the state, including at Hueco Tanks [5] and Seminole Canyon. Native Americans in East Texas began to settle in villages shortly after BC, farming and building the first burial mounds.

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They were influenced by the Mississippian culture , which had major sites throughout the Mississippi basin. From the 8th century, the bow and arrow appeared in the region, [4] manufacture of pottery developed, and Native Americans increasingly depended on bison for survival. Obsidian objects found in various Texan sites attest of trade with cultures in present-day Mexico and the Rocky Mountains , as the material is not found locally. As of the colonial period, Texas was largely divided between 6 culture groups. The Caddoan peoples occupied the area surrounding the entire length of the Red River.

All four of them held some land in what is now Texas. While the northern-most groups faced a cultural collapse due to a drought, many of the southern tribes survive to the present. North of the Pueblos were the Apachean tribes. Although commonly referred to as one, single nation, they are actually a culture group. In the 18th century, there appears to have been some sort of war in the western part of the state whereas most of the tribes of Texas divided along a line.

The Coahuiltecans, at some point, would have migrated south to merge with their sister tribes. In the 18th century, the Creek Confederacy formed on the east coast, forcing several smaller Muskogean peoples out of the state. The Choctaw also split and one of their four subtribes, the Houma came to reside in the eastern region the state before returning to Louisiana. After the American Revolution, many tribes were being consistently moved to migrate further west and give up their lands to American citizens. This may have been due to the unusual circumstance that the United States still considered many of these tribes as foreign nations, but outwardly claimed the land they stood on.

That being said, the main push was for new, rich farmland as the plantation-style farming on the east coast soon damaged the native soil.

Many tribes in the early 19th century became fed up with these practices, choosing to migrate to Texas, which was still a part of New Spain at the time. They were initially welcomed by the locals, ignored by the Spanish and played a major role in the Texas Revolution. Native Americans determined the fate of European explorers and settlers depending on whether a tribe was kind or warlike.

Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for explorers and settlers through their attacks and resistance to European conquest. In the 19th century, they resisted European and American expansion, and there was frequent warfare. Tabor Community near Overton, Texas.

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Cabeza de Vaca was the first European to explore the interior of Texas. Its initial settlement by Europeans occurred by accident. La Salle's colonization expedition left France on July 24, and soon lost one of its supply ships to Spanish privateers. After the fort was constructed, one of the ships returned to France, and the other two were soon destroyed in storms, stranding the settlers. La Salle and his men searched overland for the Mississippi River, traveling as far west as the Rio Grande [25] and as far east as the Trinity River.

That month, a third expedition launched a final attempt to find the Mississippi. The expedition experienced much infighting, and La Salle was ambushed and killed somewhere in East Texas. The Spanish learned of the French colony in late Feeling that the French colony was a threat to Spanish mines and shipping routes, King Carlos II's Council of war recommended the removal of "this thorn which has been thrust into the heart of America. The greater the delay the greater the difficulty of attainment. The last expedition discovered a French deserter living in Southern Texas with the Coahuiltecans.

The Frenchman guided the Spanish to the French fort in late April News of the destruction of the French fort "created instant optimism and quickened religious fervor" in Mexico City. The Indians regularly stole the mission cattle and horses and showed little respect to the priests. After a failed attempt to convince Spanish authorities to reestablish missions in Texas, in Franciscan missionary Francisco Hidalgo approached the French governor of Louisiana for help. This concerned Spanish authorities, who ordered the reoccupation of Texas as a buffer between New Spain and French settlements in Louisiana.

Accompanying the soldiers were the first recorded female settlers in Spanish Texas. The following year, the War of the Quadruple Alliance pitted Spain against France, which immediately moved to take over Spanish interests in North America. The French soldiers explained that additional soldiers were coming, and the Spanish colonists, missionaries, and remaining soldiers fled to San Antonio.

With no soldiers to protect them, the East Texas missions relocated to San Antonio. Although the missionaries had been unable to convert the Hasinai tribe of East Texas, they did become friendly with the natives. The Hasinai were bitter enemies of the Lipan Apache , who transferred their enmity to Spain and began raiding San Antonio and other Spanish areas.

In , France finally relinquished their claim to Texas by ceding all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to Spain as part of the treaty to end the Seven Years' War. After several attempts to settle in other parts of the province, the residents returned to East Texas without authorization and founded Nacogdoches. The Comanche agreed to a peace treaty in Over the next several years the Comanche killed many of the Karankawa in the area and drove the others into Mexico.


The Apaches were resoundingly defeated and the majority of the raids stopped. In , mission San Antonio de Valero was secularized, and the following year the four remaining missions at San Antonio were partially secularized. In , Spain gave Louisiana back to France in exchange for the promise of a throne in central Italy. Although the agreement was signed on October 1, , it did not go into effect until The following year, Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States.

The original agreement between Spain and France had not explicitly specified the borders of Louisiana, and the descriptions in the documents were ambiguous and contradictory. Thomas Jefferson claimed that Louisiana stretched west to the Rocky Mountains and included the entire watershed of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers and their tributaries, and that the southern border was the Rio Grande. Spain maintained that Louisiana extended only as far as Natchitoches, and that it did not include the Illinois Territory.

During much of the dispute with the United States, governance of New Spain was in question. In , Napoleon forced the Spanish king to abdicate the throne and appointed Joseph Bonaparte as the new monarch. Spanish troops reacted harshly, looting the province and executing any Tejanos accused of having Republican tendencies.

Texas became a part of the newly independent nation without a shot being fired, ending the period of Spanish Texas. Spanish control of Texas was followed by Mexican control of Texas, and it can be difficult to separate the Spanish and Mexican influences on the future state. The most obvious legacy is that of the language; every major river in modern Texas, except the Red River, has a Spanish or Anglicized name, as do 42 of the state's counties.

Numerous towns also bear Spanish names.

An additional obvious legacy is that of Roman Catholicism. At the end of Spain's reign over Texas, virtually all inhabitants practiced the Catholic religion, and it is still practiced in Texas by a large number of people. The Spanish introduced European livestock, including cattle, horses, and mules, to Texas as early as the s. Spanish farmers also introduced tilling and irrigation to the land, further changing the landscape. Texas eventually adopted much of the Anglo-American legal system, but some Spanish legal practices were retained, including homestead exemption , community property , and adoption.